Topics Syllabus Covered in Advance English Grammar
The English language, reading/writing is a complex system that includes numerous rules, structures, and elements that govern how words, phrases, and sentences are constructed. To become proficient in English, it is essential to understand the fundamentals of advanced English grammar, including complex sentence structures, modal verbs, reported speech, passive voice, relative clauses, gerunds and infinitives, conditionals, prepositions, articles, and conjunctions. In this article, we will provide an overview of each of these topics.
Complex Sentence Structures:
A complex sentence is a sentence that contains an independent clause and at least one dependent clause. An independent clause is a group of words that can stand alone as a sentence, while a dependent clause cannot. A dependent clause depends on an independent clause to make sense. Complex sentences are often used to express relationships between ideas, such as cause and effect, time, and contrast.
There are several types of dependent clauses, including adverbial clauses, relative clauses, and noun clauses. Adverbial clauses modify the verb in the independent clause and answer questions such as when, where, why, how, and to what extent. Relative clauses modify a noun in the independent clause and begin with relative pronouns such as who, whom, whose, that, and which. Noun clauses function as nouns in the sentence and can act as the subject, object, or complement.
Modal verbs are auxiliary verbs that express modality, which refers to the speaker’s attitude toward the action or state described in the sentence. The most common modal verbs are can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, and must. They can express a variety of meanings, including ability, permission, obligation, possibility, and prediction.
For example, “I can swim” expresses ability, while “You must finish your homework” expresses obligation.
Modal verbs have several characteristics that distinguish them from other verbs. They are always followed by the base form of the main verb, and they do not take -s or -ed endings in the third person singular. They also have no infinitive or participle forms.
Reported speech, also known as indirect speech, is used to report what someone else has said without using their exact words. Reported speech typically involves a change in verb tense, pronoun, and word order.
For example, “He said, ‘I am hungry'” becomes “He said that he was hungry” in reported speech.
There are several rules to follow when using reported speech. The tense of the reported speech is usually shifted back one tense, and the pronouns are often changed to reflect the new speaker. Direct speech marks are also typically removed.
The passive voice is a grammatical construction in which the subject of the sentence is acted upon by the verb. In the passive voice, the focus is on the action rather than the person or thing performing the action. The passive voice is formed using a form of the verb “to be” and the past participle of the main verb.
For example, “The cake was baked by Mary” is in the passive voice, while “Mary baked the cake” is in the active voice.
Relative clauses are an essential part of advanced English grammar. They provide additional information about a noun or pronoun in the sentence and can be essential or non-essential. Essential relative clauses provide necessary information and are not separated by commas, while non-essential relative clauses provide extra information and are separated by commas.
For example, consider the sentence: “The woman who lives next door is a doctor.” In this sentence, “who lives next door” is an essential relative clause because it provides essential information about the noun “woman.” Without this clause, the sentence would simply state that “The woman is a doctor,” which is not as informative.
Gerunds and Infinitives:
Gerunds and infinitives are both verbal nouns that can function as subjects, objects, or complements in a sentence. A gerund is a verb that ends in “-ing” and functions as a noun, while an infinitive is the base form of a verb preceded by “to” and can also function as a noun.
For example, consider the sentence: “Running is good exercise.” In this sentence, “running” is a gerund that functions as the subject of the sentence.
In contrast, consider the sentence: “I like to run.” In this sentence, “to run” is an infinitive that functions as the direct object of the verb “like.”
Conditionals are used to describe situations or events that may happen in the future depending on certain conditions. They are typically formed using if-then clauses and can be classified into four types based on the likelihood of the event occurring.
The first conditional describes events that are likely to happen in the future if a certain condition is met. For example, “If it rains, the game will be cancelled.”
The second conditional describes events that are less likely to happen in the future, but are still possible. For example, “If I had more money, I would buy a new car.”
The third conditional describes events that are impossible because they already occurred in the past. For example, “If I had studied harder, I would have passed the exam.”
The zero conditional describes events that always happen when a certain condition is met. For example, “If you heat ice, it melts.”
Prepositions are words that show the relationship between a noun or pronoun and other words in a sentence. They typically indicate direction, location, time, or manner.
For example, consider the sentence: “The cat is on the mat.” In this sentence, “on” is a preposition that shows the relationship between the noun “cat” and the noun “mat.”
Articles are words that indicate the presence or absence of a noun in a sentence. There are two types of articles in English: definite and indefinite. Definite articles refer to specific nouns, while indefinite articles refer to non-specific nouns.
For example, consider the sentence: “The dog chased a cat.” In this sentence, “the” is a definite article that refers to a specific dog, while “a” is an indefinite article that refers to a non-specific cat.
Conjunctions are words that connect words, phrases, or clauses in a sentence. There are several types of conjunctions, including coordinating conjunctions, subordinating conjunctions, and correlative conjunctions.
Coordinating conjunctions connect words, phrases, or independent clauses of equal importance. For example, “I like pizza and pasta.”
Subordinating conjunctions connect dependent clauses to independent clauses. For example, “I will go to bed when I finish my homework.”
Correlative conjunctions are used in pairs to connect words, phrases, or clauses. For example, “Either you come with me, or I will go alone.”